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Wht is the mening of n orgniztion The mening of n orgniztion system of group reltionships built upon nd fostering coopertion

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Business organization

1. What is the meaning of an organization?

 The meaning of an organization - a system of group relationships built upon and fostering cooperation.

2. Give your definition of an organization. 

Organization is an open, dynamic, purposeful social system of cooperation designed to enhance individual effort aimed at goal accomplishment.

3. What are the components of the organization theory?

 The components of the organization theory are goals, work, power and authority, delegation, structure.

4. What role do power and authority play in building every organization? 

These two components of theory help explain the network of relationships that tie the other components of an organization together into some logical pattern.

5. What is the starting point for the design of an organization?

Goals are the starting point for the design and maintenance of the organization itself.

6. What is delegation and why is it necessary in today’s organization? 

Delegation is the process of transferring an obligation (responsibility) and an accompanying right (authority) from a superior to a subordinate position in the organization. Without delegation, an organization simply cannot exist and prosper.

7. Which is more important: formal or informal structure?

Organizations create an officially sanctioned structure known as the formal organization or de jure organization. A formal organization is only half the story, for superimposed on these relationships is a whole series of informal or de facto relationships that are not sanctioned by the organization. These include informal work groupings of employees, informal leaders, informal channels of communication and informal power and status differentials. Thus, I think that informal structure is more important.

8. Can you give any example of an ad hoc organization?          

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

9. Do all organizations need structure? Give your reasons.

Structure is the hierarchical pattern of authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships designed to provide coordination of the work of the organization. Yes, all organizations need it, because it refers to how workers within a business are organized and how they relate to each other

10. Define the term authority and explain how it is related to formal and informal organizations.

Authority is power that has been given official recognition by the organization. Every member of the organization has some amount of authority to take action necessary to carry out his responsibility.

11. Explain how responsibility, authority, and accountability should be related to each other in the ideal organization.

In the ideal organization these components are connected by the concept of structure. Structure is the hierarchical pattern of authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships designed to provide coordination of the work of the organization.  It is basically a managerial tool that aids in guiding the organization towards its goals and can be considered the skeleton of the organizational body.

12. Take an organization with which you are familiar and see if you can explain the way it works (principles, goals, structure, objectives, climate, and so forth).

I would like to tell you about the factory of agricultural machinery-GOMSELMASH. Principles by which the company is firmly entrenched in the market: high quality and reliability. The company has a clear structure. Important to climate, to maintain it, the company carried out a variety of cultural and sporting events.

13. List each organization you belong to. Do they have any impact on your life? List and discuss each impact.

Now this university. Of course, the effects are: first second shift, I started to go to bed and get up later in the second schedule, under which I have to adapt, and third prohiditsya me to communicate with people not only in our country, so I need to know their culture

14. Because of its broad global environment, a number of disciplines (geography, history, law, economics, political science, anthropology) are useful to help explain the conduct of international business. Prove it with your own examples.

By studying these disciplines, we learn especially from different countries, that helps to quickly adapt to the international business.

15. What is a business entity?

A business entity is any business organization that exists as an economic unit.

16. What types of business organizations do you know?

If the organization serves customers for a charge, it’s a service company (repair shops). A merchandising company buys ready for sale goods and sells it (supermarkets). And the last type is manufacturing companies that buy raw materials, processed them into products and sell them to customers.

17. What forms of business organizations do you know?

These forms are: a sole proprietorship, a partnership, and a corporation.

18. Differentiate between a sole proprietorship and a partnership.

In a sole proprietorship business is managed by one person, in a partnership – by more than two people, in a single proprietorship, the owner is responsible for all debts of the business; partnerships are created by an agreement.

19. Differentiate between a partnership and a corporation.

In a partnership business is managed by more than two people, associated as partners. Corporation is a business owned by a few persons or by thousands of persons who own the company on the foundation of limited liability.

20. Differentiate between private and public company.

Private companies are private in the sense that they cannot be bought by members of the public. Public company: the shares are openly traded on a public stock exchange. These are the large, often well-known businesses.

21. Who runs a company?

A company is run by shareholders or stockholders.

22. Who elects the Board of Directors?

The stockholders elect a board of directors to represent their interests.

23. What are the functions of the Board of Directors?

It selects the president and vice president, who manage the corporation for the stockholders. Boards are fully independent, but in general their role is to:

- Set log-term strategy.

- Appoint a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and other members of the senior management team to run the company day-to-day.

- Ask questions about any short- or medium-term strategy developed by the CEO, and then support it once they have agreed.

- Oversee the preparation of the financial statements.

- Appoint and ensure the independence of the company's auditors.

- Oversee and manage risk.

- Set an annual dividend.

24. What is a limited liability?

The owners of a company never have to pay more than they have invested in the company.

25. What do the names of companies reflect? Give some examples.

The names of companies around the world reflect the guarantee of limited liability. The abbreviations "GmbH" in Germany, "Inc."(Incorporated) in the United States, or "Ltd." in most other English-speaking countries indicate that the firm is a limited liability company. The "S.A." in French- and Spanish-speaking countries also refers to limited liability by defining shareholders as "anonymous."

26. What types of international business do you know?

According to the type of operation the enterprise perform, it can be a joint venture, a mixed venture (when a government is in partnership with a private company), and a multinational enterprise, or MNC.

27. Explain the concept of ‘learning organization’

A learning organization is companies where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together

28. Explain the concept of “systems thinking”

Systems thinking is an ability to see and think about the organization as a whole, not just as a lot of disconnected parts. It emphasizes the need for the whole team to focus, learn, and build a shared vision.

29. What is at the heart of P. Senge’s vision of ‘learning organization’?

At the heart of this vision is what he called 'systems thinking' - an ability to see and think about the organization as a whole, not just as a lot of disconnected parts. It emphasizes the need for the whole team to focus, learn, and build a shared vision.

30. What are the arguments for and against the ‘learning organization’?

For: although it tends to cause upheaval and a real paradigm shift within a company, it usually leads to improved results; all staff become far more engaged in the success of the company.

Against: in the long run, what employees really need is to be able to do what they do better, not to spend time worrying about the bigger picture, and that companies should simply direct training towards addressing any skills deficit and encouraging professional development across the board in response to individual training needs.

31. How do people react to any changes taking place in an organization?

The people in an organization start thinking about how the change will affect them personally. They weigh up the pros and cons and ask questions about its usefulness. Reactions will range from enthusiastic support, to apathy, to rejection.

32. Those affected by changes usually tend to fall into three groups. What are they? Describe them.

The supporters - they'll take an active part in the process and will do their best to understand the new procedures and adapt to new programs; the ambivalent - they can see that the proposals have good and bad points, they'll eventually accept the changes as necessary; the opponents - they'll be difficult, rebellious and unwilling, and will try hard to resist the change

33. What kinds of risks do companies face?

Some risks affect all businesses, such as the unpredictability of economics (e.g. inflation), politics (e.g. new legislation), and business realities (e.g. late payments). There are also risks specific to each sector.

34. In what way do high-trust and low-trust societies relate to economic prosperity?

Where there is high trust among and between people, economic activity flourishes and there are opportunities for all. On the other hand, where there is low trust, economic resources are squandered in an attempt to protect against thievery and corruption—or these resources are not available at all.




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